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  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 43

    November 27, 2022 | Issue 43 "CRYPTO IS DEAD, RIGHT?," ASKED STEPHEN AT OUR THANKSGIVING DINNER TABLE. I should have anticipated my brother-in-law's question by having a concise answer on hand. Instead, I leaped into a long rambling response that caused his eyes to glaze over. Darn, another missed opportunity to impart knowledge. Stephen is a news junkie, but mostly political news. However, when a business news story about crypto dominates all media it's impossible not to read the headlines and see the face of a young man with a head of curls. Sam Bankman-Fried is crypto's face of shame. Pharma has Elizabeth Holmes of Theranos. Energy traders had Ken Lay of Enron. Commercial real estate owners had Adam Neumann of WeWork. Financial advisors had Bernie Madoff. (Hmm, how long before HULU has a series about FTX?) As more of Bankman-Fried's disastrous practices are uncovered, crypto industry leaders are on the defensive. Investors are asking tough questions, like "How can you prove to me that you are not using customer funds for risky loans?" Expect to see adequate reserves held on the blockchain where anyone can verify the balance. There will be thorough financial audits by reputable accounting firms and, Congress will step in with legislation. FTX's failure is horrible for their customers, investors, and those interested in crypto who have been watching from the sidelines. It set the industry back because its failure and inevitable contagion to other weak companies will support crypto naysayers. The industry however, will adjust, improve, and move ahead. At my Thanksgiving dinner, I could have said all this to Stephen, but that wouldn't have left time to debate politics. If you want to see past issues of my crypto newsletter, go Crypto News for Realtors. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Have a productive week and stay crypto-curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. PPS - Here's our Thanksgiving menu if you want some ideas for 2023. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ Uh Oh, Is Crypto Lender Genesis Going to Fail? As in any ecosystem, the crypto ecosystem is built on connections. When FTX collapsed, we knew that its failure would impact many other companies. Over the past week, a lot of attention has been on Barry Silbert and Digital Currency group, the owner of Genesis Global Capital (GCD). Genesis was a trading partner with FTX and had $175M in assets with FTX. The money was frozen when FTX filed for bankruptcy. Shortly after FTX's bankruptcy, Genesis halted withdrawals and on Tuesday, November 22, Silbert said, "Genesis leadership and their board decided to hire financial and legal advisors and the firm is exploring all possible options amidst the fallout from the implosion of FTX.” Essentially, Genesis is seeking expert counsel to avoid bankruptcy. A failure of Genesis could be worse than the FTX failure. The Financial Times said, "Genesis is the biggest trading desk for professional investors in cryptocurrency markets." The Genesis website shared these 2021 stats: $116.5B in Spot Volume Trading (financial instruments are traded immediately), $130.6B in Loan Origination (loans provided), and $53.8B in Derivatives Trading (financial contracts, usually leveraged, that either mitigate or assume risks). Genesis was the biggest creditor to Three Arrows Capital when it went into bankruptcy. Genesis' parent company GCD covered the $1.1B loss. Genesis sits at the center of crypto markets. Large crypto traders ("whales") and family offices rely on Genesis to pay the yield on their crypto funds. Also, retail crypto exchanges like Gemini use Genesis for their "Earn" product. DCG has over $2B in debts. Other crypto companies owned by DCG include Grayscale, the world's largest digital currency asset manager and Foundry, the largest bitcoin mining pool. ▸ Binance Shares Reserve Info Binance, the largest crypto exchange, released its proof-of-reserves systems to show the world it is financially sound. For those holding bitcoin at Binance, the company showed it has a surplus of 6,742 bitcoin, or $111M. Overall, Binance has a 101% reserve ratio. ▸ Perils of a Crypto-Friendly Bank Silvergate Capital Corp. remade itself from a small commercial lender to a bank serving the crypto market. It had FTX deposits, but no loans to FTX, according to company statements. However, given its close ties with the crypto industry, it is being viewed as vulnerable. The Wall Street Journal reported that "short bets against Silvergate have doubled this year. It is the second-most heavily shorted regional bank, based on percent of shares outstanding, according to data from S3 Partners." Silvergate has an exchange network that connects the bank accounts of investors to exchanges. This is known as an on-ramp to cryptocurrency exchanges. CRYPTO CLASS – A Run On The Crypto Bank Whenever there is bad news about a crypto company, customers become nervous, panic ensues followed by requests from customers to withdrawal their funds. If the company cannot assure its customers that they are solvent, frenzied withdrawals overload the system resulting in a crisis for the bank and its customers. We saw this two weeks ago. On November 6, 2022, the largest crypto exchange, Binance, announced on Twitter that is was selling hundreds of millions of FTX's token FTT. The announcement precipitated a "run on the bank" and $4B was withdrawn that day. The next day, $6B. And then on November 8, FTX could not meet customer withdrawal requests. Three days later on November 11, the CEO resigned and the company filed for bankruptcy. To most of us, bank runs are associated with the Great Depression and the classic movie "It's a Wonderful Life." In the 1930s, people heard stories about banks not being able to return funds to customers and panic spread across the country. In 1933, the government responded to the banking crisis by creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which insured customer deposits. Today, the amount is $250,000. Banks become FDIC insured by meeting rigorous standards.Bank customers know that their funds are safe because the FDIC protects them. If a bank is overwhelmed by withdrawal requests, the bank can borrow funds from other institutions. Also, most bank customers probably do not realize that banks do not have cash reserves on hand for all customer deposits. This is by design. It allows banks to use the capital for lending. This system is know as fractional reserve banking. There is no FDIC for crypto lenders or exchanges, especially those outside the US. However, this does not mean that bad actors can't be prosecuted for fraud and existing laws. The SEC has been aggressive in filing enforcement actions against crypto companies it believes violated securities laws. Crypto bank runs will continue. Responsible companies will support smart legislation and publish their reserve amounts in an attempt to stave off customer worries about inadequate available funds. INFLUENCERS - People to Follow Barry Silbert – @BarrySilbert Silbert is the Founder/CEO of Digital Crypto Group (DCG), parent of Grayscale, Genesis Trading, CoinDesk and other companies. DCG has invested in over 200 crypto startups. Prior to DCG, Silbert sold his company, SecondMarket, to Nasdaq. Forbes estimates his network at $2B. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interview, articles THE SCOOP. A podcast by The Block by Frank Chaparro with a lot of fascinating guests. CRYPTO WORD – Rehypothecation Rehypothecation is the practice where banks, and even the brokers themselves, use assets that have been posted as collateral by their clients for their own purposes. Clients that permit rehypothecation of their collateral can be compensated through a lower cost of borrowing or a rebate on fees. (Source: Coinmarketcap) OH, ONE MORE THING – In the 1946 movie "It's A Wonderful Life," bank president George Bailey (played by James Stewart) tries to persuade customers not to withdraw their money during a bank run. Today, crypto CEOs try to reassure nervous customers on Twitter.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 42

    November 20, 2022 | Issue 42 – SPECIAL ISSUE: FTX SAM BANKMAN-FRIED, A VERY BAD DUDE Over the past 42 weeks, I’ve documented the rise of crypto, the short-lived excitement of using NFTs to purchase houses, the sudden collapse of several exchanges during the summer that decimated the crypto market, and crypto's transformation from an asset that was a hedge against inflation to one that followed the S&P. During this volatile time, crypto news found a new face for crypto. Instead of the relatively reclusive founder of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin, the media started profiling 30-year old Sam Bankman-Fried ("SBF"). Bankman-Fried was the CEO of the $32B crypto exchange FTX and Alameda Research. He was commonly described as a wunderkind. He built a personal brand of a nerdy, brilliant, crypto leader whose mission was to bring crypto to the masses and redefine finance. SBF dressed the part – shorts, t-shirts, wild head of curls. He was on the cover of influential magazines, such as Fortune. He shared a stage with Tony Blair and Bill Clinton. He projected an anti-greed capitalist image by embracing the new Effective Altruism philosophy of earning as much money as possible, living modestly, and donating everything else to help others. When SBF was interviewed, he didn't come across as arrogant or disingenuous. He seemed brilliant, likable, and most-importantly, trustworthy. SBF used his money and fame to gain access to Washington's power brokers. He met with leaders and staff of the SEC and CFTC, US Senators and Representatives. And then.... poof. It was all gone. In a shockingly short period of time, FTX, Alameda Research, and the 100 plus other entities controlled by Bankman-Fried went into bankruptcy. Bankman-Fried was fired. The impact of FTX's failure on the crypto industry will be profound. In this issue of Crypto News for Realtors I will unpack what happened. Before we jump into the FTX debacle, you are likely wondering how will this impact crypto and real estate. Extensive news coverage of this spectacular crypto business failure and its financial impact on investors and FTX employees has ignited a fire under the collective butts of the legislators and regulators. The crypto industry will be reined in. Investors will be protected and the benefits of crypto will be realized – lower transaction costs, exponentially faster transfers of international payments, increased security and transparency on a decentralized and public ledger (blockchain), and opportunities for world's bankless population to acquire property and build wealth. Don't give up on crypto because of the FTX headlines. Crypto isn't going to disappear. In 2023, the crypto industry will grow up. The benefits of crypto, institutional endorsements, and regulatory safeguards will give people the comfort and confidence that crypto is more than a speculative investment. It will become another asset in your homebuyers' portfolios. Keep the faith and never stop educating yourself about crypto. If you want to see past issues of my crypto newsletter, go Crypto News for Realtors. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS – FTX IMPLODES ▸ The Life & Death of FTX Sam Bankman-Fried's $32B crypto trading firm FTX not only imploded, it caused a $150B loss in the crypto market in three days after FTX's token FTT, dropped 80%. Here are the key events explaining what happened: 1. 2017 - Alameda Research was founded by SBF. 2. 2019 - FTX was founded by SBF. He had a majority stake in both entities and the businesses were intertwined. 3. Binance, the largest crypto exchange, invested in FTX. 4. FTX grew rapidly and Binance sold its equity back to FTX. A portion of the payment was in FTT tokens. 5. Spring and summer 2022 - FTX purchased and provided loans to several large failing crypto firms. 6. Nov 2, 2022 - CoinDesk published an article by Ian Allison that disclosed a leaked Alameda balance sheet. It showed of $14.6B of assets, the biggest asset was $3.66B of FTT and after that was $2.16B of FTT collateral. 7. Nov 6, 2022 - Binance announced it would sell hundreds of millions of FTT. This precipitated $4B in withdrawals. A backlog of FTT sale requests started. 8. Nov 7, 2022 - $6B of FTT was withdrawn. 9. Nov 8, 2022 - FTX could not meet customer demand for withdrawals and there was a "liquidity crisis." Binance signed a Letter of Intent with FTX to acquire the company. 10. Nov 9, 2022 - Binance withdrew its offer after starting its due diligence. The Wall Street Journal reported that FTX used billions of customer funds for its crypto trading firm. The failure of FTX to segregate and protect customer funds is the central reason for FTX's failure. 11. Nov 11, 2022 - SBF resigned and filed for bankruptcy. It was the largest crypto bankruptcy filing. ▸ The Autopsy Begins FTX's new CEO, John J. Ray, III, oversaw Enron's bankruptcy. He reported to the court in a filing, "Never in my career have I seen such a complete failure of corporate controls and such a complete absence of trustworthy financial information as occurred here. From compromised systems integrity and faulty regulatory oversight abroad, to the concentration of control in the hands of a very small group of inexperienced, unsophisticated and potentially compromised individuals, this situation is unprecedented.” Among the major problems flagged by Ray... ● No accounting department. ● No human resources department. Ray could not obtain a list of employees. ● No records of real estate purchased by the company. ● A $1B loan from FTX to Sam Bankman-Fried. ● Alameda spent over $8B to acquire startup by trading on credit that no other firms received. ● No records of board meetings. ● No records of customer asset deposits. After reviewing available financial statements, Ray said that he lacks confidence in the records. He cited examples of inadequate procedures, such as payment request submitted on chat platforms with supervisors giving approvals with emojis. Bloomberg opinion columnist Matt Levine questioned how other FTX leaders could claim to be shocked by these practices. Levine wrote, "On the one hand, it does seem like FTX was what you’d get if a half-dozen college buddies ran a global financial exchange with no supervision. On the other hand, there were in fact hundreds of employees, including a chief regulatory officer. They resigned in shock when they learned about FTX’s insolvency and its misuse of customer money. But presumably they knew about the … emojis in the chats? It is one thing for a small group of top executives, who all live with each other, to do intentional fraud and keep it secret from the rest of the company. But the 'complete failure of corporate controls and … complete absence of trustworthy financial information' seems like something someone might have noticed." Expect to see continuous coverage of FTX's failure and hearings on Capitol Hill. OH, ONE MORE THING – Crypto leaders have been making the rounds on business shows to explain why the FTX failure will not kill bitcoin. Strike CEO Jack Mallers explains why bitcoin is insulated from FTX. Thanks for reading! See you next week.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 41

    November 9, 2022 | Issue 41 – BREAKING NEWS! CRYPTO'S LEHMAN BROTHERS MOMENT? As the US focused on elections and which party will control Congress, the crypto world experienced a major shock. FTX and Alameda Research, led by the dynamic 30-year old billionaire CEO Sam Bankman-Fried, signed a Letter of Intent with Binance, agreeing to be acquired. What? Why? What does this mean for crypto? Is this why crypto prices are plummeting? I wanted to share this major crypto news with you as soon as possible instead of waiting until Sunday. Also, I will be unplugged for the rest of the week and through the weekend to celebrate my daughter's wedding. Keep an eye on the crypto news over the next week. There will be a lot of crypto stories as soon as election news quiets down. If you want to see past issues of my crypto newsletter, go Crypto News for Realtors. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS – BREAKING NEWS ▸ #1 CRYPTO EXCHANGE BINANCE RESCUES #2 FTX FROM COLLAPSE On Tuesday, Binance agreed to buy FTX and Alameda Research after FTX experienced a fatal "liquidity event." This occurred after a multi-day public spat on Twitter between Sam Bankman-Fried ("SBF"), founder of crypto trading firm Alameda Research and FTX, and Changpeng Zhao ("CZ"), founder of Binance. The tweets started on Sunday in response to a report from CoinDesk which revealed that Alameda's balance sheet relied upon FTT, FTX's token. The market cap of FTT was $3 B, but it was illiquid. Large selling orders of FTT would cause a cascading drop in price that could damage FTX. CZ announced on Twitter that Binance would liquidate its FTT holdings, worth about $580M as of Sunday. CZ and SBF have a history of publicly disagreeing how to handle regulators. SBF regularly visits DC and wants to help shape the dialogue among industry leaders, legislators, and regulators. CZ, by contrast, is less visible in DC. CZ compared FTX risk with the Luna cryptocurrency that collapsed earlier in 2022. The drama that began on Sunday, ended Tuesday when CZ and SBF announced that Binance would acquire FTX.com. They tweeted: "To protect users, we signed a non-binding LOI [letter of Intent], intending to fully acquire FTX.com and help cover the liquidity crunch." SBF added, "A huge thank you to CZ, Binance, and all of our supporters. Our teams are working on clearing out the withdrawal backlog as is. This will clear out liquidity crunches; all assets will be covered 1:1. This is one of the main reasons we’ve asked Binance to come in.” Until this incident, SBF's companies were viewed as crypto's savior when they bailed out firms on the brink of collapse like BlockFi and Voyager Digital. ▸ SBF... WHAT HAPPENED? Bloomberg Opinion columnist Matt Levine, explained, "A crypto exchange is a weird sort of business, in many ways more like a brokerage than a traditional exchange. The simplest way to run the business is to take deposits from customers, buy crypto for the customers, keep everything segregated, and make money on commissions." A friend who works at US crypto exchange explained, "I view this as a failure of Alameda Research, which is inextricably linked to FTX, which caused a bank run that necessitated a rescue. The thing that kicked this off was Alameda held a ton of FTT and Solana, which are not liquid, and then to make matters worse they borrowed USD using their FTT and SOL as collateral. When FTT and SOL fell apart, Alameda fell apart. This caused a bank run on FTX, causing Binance to be able to scoop them up." ▸ MESSAGE FROM THE VICTOR CZ said that the lessons learned from FTX's forced sale to Binance: ● Never use a token you created as collateral. ● Don’t borrow if you run a crypto business. ● Don't use capital 'efficiently.' Have a large reserve." Jeremy Allaire, co-founder and CEO of Circle, said this was crypto's Lehman Brothers moment. Allaire used FTX's crisis as an opportunity to highlight the financial stability of its stablecoin, USDC, which is backed by US treasury bonds and cash. US Senator Cynthia Lummis, R-WY, said that her crypto bill that was co-sponsored by Sen Kirsten Gillibrand, D-NY, provides essential regulation "ensuring customers are protected while still promoting responsible innovation." Shaan Puri explained what happened in a tweet thread that recites the key moments (Think... slow motion analyses of a horrible car crash.) ‣ "Here's the 30 second summary of the FTX drama that is blowing up in crypto. ‣ 1/ How FTX (a multi billion dollar co) almost died overnight ‣ 2/ And why this is a god tier strategic move by Binance. OK so it starts years ago. Binance was an early investor in FTX. ‣ But FTX starts growing like crazy. They become the #2 biggest exchange. ‣ Steph curry, tom brady, they cut huge marketing deals. ‣ SBF becomes the famous "fro of crypto." ‣ They started as friends, now competitors. Binance #1. FTX #2. (coinbase and others are smaller) ‣ Binance decides to sell it's stake in FTX. As part of the buyout, they agreed to take $2B of it in "FTT" -- a token that FTX created that it uses for trading fees. ‣ So now - Binance and FTX are friendly competitors. ‣ Binance owns a sh*t ton of FTT ($2B). There's not a lot of FTT trading volume (this is important soon). ‣ Two days ago, CZ comes out and says SBF has been talking sh*t about them to regulators lobbying in a way that would hurt binance. So he announces publicly on twitter to his 7M followers that he's going to DUMP his entire $2B FTT stash. ‣ Anyone holding FTT knows this is bad news. $2B of sell pressure would crush price, so they start to panic sell. ‣ Price of FTT drops like 15-20% overnight. ‣ Nobody wants to buy FTT (too risky, a whale is about to dump) and everyone wants to sell. Numbers go down. ‣ Enter Alameda - the hedge fund/market maker Sam started before FTX. ‣ They are kings. But news leaks showing the emperor has no clothes. They have ~$12B in assets, $7b ish in liabilities...but half their "assets" are in FTT token which is plummeting & illiquid. ‣ Alameda might die. ‣ If Alameda is in trouble, FTX might be too. They are sorta sister companies. Market makers on FTX. And possibly hold/trade customer deposits. The relationship has been unclear for years. (achilles heel?) ‣ But most people think of FTX as a blue chip company. Sam is famous. He's a genius right? ‣ They wait for him or Alameda to show they are in good health. *narrator* but they were not in good health. ‣ Sam tweets saying everything is "fine" but it feels to all of crypto like a girlfriend saying "I'm fine" but she's not fine. ‣ Alameda's CEO comes out and says they will "happily" buy the FTT token as it plunges. But something tells us that it's not so happy, even with the exclamation mark. ‣ 24 hours pass. If they had the financial strength, they would have shown it by now. ‣ This starts to feel like the "steady lads" moment right before luna collapsed. ‣ People freak out, start withdrawing funds from FTX. Ya know, just in case it collapses like celsius, blockfi, voyager, luna all did in the past year ‣ $1B+ of withdrawals. FTX is facing a liquidity crunch. ‣ More silence (wtf), withdrawals paused on FTX (double wtf). ‣ Then today - @SBF_FTX comes out and says they are entering a "strategic transaction" with binance strategic transaction? ‣ CZ clears it up "FTX was in trouble. We bought them to save them." ‣ Binance basically started a rumor, made a threat, and ended up buying its biggest competitor overnight. ‣ For now the drama ends, crypto crisis averted. ‣ If FTX failed...that would have been devastating for all of crypto. ‣ Sam had become the main character. you never want to be the main character." CRYPTO CLASS – Crypto Industry Invests in Candidates In Paul Kiernan's WSJ article about crypto dollars flowing to 2022 election candidates, Kiernan reports that over $73 M was spent compared to $13 M in 2020. This year, the industry also spent $15 M on lobbying through September. The industry is being scrutinized by regulators like the SEC who argue that much of the crypto industry is skirting investor protection laws. Kiernan reported that there have been over 100 enforcement actions against crypto entities and the SEC has doubled the size of its crypto department. Industry leaders recognize that reasonable regulations are necessary for crypto to become widely accepted. Unlike most legislative matters, crypto enjoys support from both political parties. “These midterms are the most important elections for this crypto community,” said Hermine Wong, a policy director at Coinbase, the largest U.S. crypto-trading platform. “We believe that the legislators who will be coming in this cycle will be able to finally draft legislation to govern this space.” Crypto contributions exceed political contributions from the auto and defensive industries combined. The industry is urging its favored members of Congress to support legislations that provides regulatory protection to investors without being overly burdensome. INFLUENCERS - People to follow Lev Menand – @LevMenand A professor at Columbia Law with expertise in money, banking, central banking, economic governance, admin law, and separation of powers. His recent book on the Fed, "The Fed Unbound" got terrific reviews. It's on my reading list. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos Robinhood's investment app has an excellent library on investment concepts and also foundational articles on crypto. CRYPTO WORD – Store of Value A store of value can be an asset or currency, as well as a commodity. Many commodities are actually products that maintain their value throughout a prolonged period of time. An item can be considered as a store of value if its value is either stable or can increase over time, but does not depreciate. Gold, as well as other precious metals, are a good store of value due to the fact that their shelf lives are perpetual. A nation's currency has to be a reasonable store of value for its economy to be able to function smoothly. (From CoinMarketCap) OH, ONE MORE THING – There will be a flood of crypto memes about CZ's acquisition of Alameda/FTX. This one shows CZ carrying a sink into Alameda's office. It's a play on an image that Elon Musk tweeted showing him carrying a sink on his way into Twitter's office. Thanks for reading! See you next week.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – 40

    November 6, 2022 | Issue 40 Elon Musk's purchase of Twitter has captured a lot of headlines. The stories highlight Elon's flip-flopping – – I'm thinking of buying Twitter. – No, just kidding. – Oh wait, here's a real offer with proof of funding, let's do it, I'll sign an agreement. – Damn, the economy changed. I'm not going ahead with the deal because my offer price is way too high and by the way, Twitter has a gazillion bots who aren't real users. – Let's lawyer up. See you Twits in court. – This lawsuit is stupid. Ok, I'll buy Twitter as promised. Now that Elon's purchase is done and it's his company, the conversation has shifted to how he will transform the company. There are concerns about one man having control of the world's public square. How will Elon, a guy who is known to be pretty filterless with his own speech, handle inflammatory, racist, or antisemitic tweets? How will Elon transfer Twitter into a thriving business enterprise? Lots of big challenges, but Elon has an unmatched track record of solving difficult problems. Tesla – Transforming the auto industry from fossil fuel to electric vehicles. SpaceX – Modernizing and privatizing space exploration. The Boring Company – Building a transportation network underground. Neuralink – Engineering a connection between the brain and computers. This is man who should not be underestimated. An important piece of Twitter will likely be a payments protocol that would incorporate crypto. Keep an eye on how Elon transforms Twitter. If you want to talk crypto, reach out to me. If you want to see past issues of my crypto newsletter, go Crypto News for Realtors. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ CHIEF TWIT ELON MUSK WILL REMAKE TWITTER After being forced to comply with his contractual agreement to purchase Twitter for $44B, Elon Musk followed through with his stated plan to make Twitter a private company. It will be delisted from the New York Stock Exchange on November 8. Firings started immediately with executives and the board of directors. On Friday, close to half of the employees received an email stating – "Today is your last working day at the company." Musk's immediate focus was to cut costs and find a revenue source in addition to advertising. He announced that Twitter users could pay $8 a month for a blue check-mark that verifies the account is legitimate. This service had been free and was used by influencers, celebrities and journalists. What's his vision for the company? During an investment conference, Musk said Twitter could become the most valuable company in the world. One way to accomplish this would be for Musk to replicate WeChat's "super app" model and transform Twitter into an app that offers the services and features that most of us use on multiple apps. WeChat provides services to over 1.2 billion users. Some of the app services include text and voice messaging, video calls, conference calling, photo and video sharing, gaming, creating a "public account" that displays location, and digital payment services. Given Musk's history as a PayPal founder and his interest in crypto, many crypto commentators expect that he will explore Twitter becoming a crypto payment platform. ▸ SEC Charges Trade Coin Club Founder and Promoters The Securities & Exchange Commission brought charges against four individuals alleging that the crypto-trading membership club Trade Coin was a Ponzi scheme. The SEC claim that the defendants enticed over 100,000 investors with false promises of making a 0.35% daily return on their investment from a trading bot. Instead, the trading club paid out returns with investor deposits. SEC Chair Gary Gensler said, “Fraud is fraud, regardless of the types of investors you have defrauded and the types of securities used in the fraud.” ▸ NY Fed Tests Digital Currency Speed Foreign exchange (FX) transactions take two days. In a simulation of central bank digital currency (CBDC) sending digital currencies, the process took 10 seconds. The NY Fed's New York Innovation Center tested the speed of FX transactions using distributed ledgers. The experiment was part of a research project looking into CBDC benefits. Michelle Neal, the head of NY Fed's market group, said, “This indicates that a modular ecosystem of ledgers has the potential for continued scalability, and that distributed ledger technology could enable settlement times well below the current industry standard of two days, with the added guarantee of atomic settlement.” CRYPTO CLASS – Digital Asset Industry Standards – A Draft by FTX's Sam Bankman-Fried On October 19, 2022, the CEO of FTX, Sam Bankman-Fried aka "SBF," published "Possible Digit Asset Industry Standards." It caused a lot of industry conversation because it followed news reports about Bankman-Fried meeting with key legislators on Capitol Hill. The report discusses many important industry and regulatory issues. Here are a two of the seven standards: ● Hacks & Accountability Hacks are an unfortunate risk to the crypto ecosystem. A common scenario is for a hacker to find a vulnerability in the computer code and steal funds from a crypto company. The hacker then communicates with the victim company (or protocol) and the parties negotiate. The protocol seeks to recover the stolen crypto and the hacker requests immunity and a reward for identifying the software vulnerability. SBF proposed an industry response: Customers must remain whole. The hacker would not receive any money owed to customers. The hacker agrees to cooperate and return the bulk of the assets. The hacker gets to keep 5% or $5m, whichever is the lesser amount. The hacker must return the funds within 24 hours. ● Tokenized Equities Blockchain technology has a lot of potential to improve traditional market infrastructure. Retail stock transactions go through a large number of entities and can take days to settle. He gave an example where there can be over 15 entities for a single investment. A settlement in USD can take months for ACH and credit cards. SBF cited an example – On January 28, 2021, retail investors bought large amounts of certain equities (GameStop and AMC) and there were billions of dollars of unsettled gains. By contrast, digital assets can trade and settle instantly. "If Alice wants to buy SOL from Bob in return for USDC, Alice sends the USDC on-chain to Bob, Bob sends back the SOL, and a few seconds later–with just ~$0.0005 in fees–the trade has fully settled, with no outstanding settlement uncertainty or risk, and so essentially no regulatory capital necessary. And if two platforms had a transfer or transaction between them, they could just send the appropriate asset on the blockchain to the other one, once again clearing up settlement risk in seconds.... I think that tokenizing stocks could help simplify securities settlement, providing a stronger and more equitable market structure for retail." INFLUENCERS - People to follow David Hoffman – @TrustlessState Hoffman is co-founder of BanklessDao, a decentralized community with a mission to help the world be bankless. Hoffman began his professional career starting in the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry. Hoffman has been consulting and advising blockchain startups since 2017. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos Most real estates and entrepreneurs know Gary Vaynerchuk (Gary Vee). One of his childhood businesses was collecting baseball cards. In 2021, when collectible NFTs became popular, he jumped into the new industry and created a line of collectible NFTs, Vee Friends. CRYPTO WORD – Binary Code Binary code is the most basic form of programming data that a computer can directly comprehend. It is made up of a series of 0s and 1s that is organized and structured so that it can be received and processed as part of a bigger computer application. (From CoinMarketCap) OH, ONE MORE THING – Elon Musk tweeted on Nov 1, "Totally stole idea of charging for insults & arguments from Monty Python tbh"

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 39

    October 30, 2022 | Issue 39 VIEWING CRYPTO FROM OUTER SPACE We can look at crypto from different perspectives. We can focus on the details, like how Ethereum transitioned from the proof-of-work protocol to proof-of-stake. We can look at an entire area of crypto like NFTs. Or we take a 30,000 foot view and look at the broad constructs of crypto. I have done this during presentations when I discussed crypto currencies, stablecoins, NFTs, and crypto real estate in a short 30-minute presentation. However, there's another way to view crypto, from a satellite 12,000 miles high. Satellites can zoom out and see the entire field of vision or zoom in to see great detail. This week, the great Bloomberg Opinion writer Matt Levine wrote a 40,000 word story about crypto which is Bloomberg Magazine's entire issue. It is entitled, "The Only Crypto Story" and it is a satellite view on crypto. Levine, formerly a lawyer and investment banker, has a huge following because he explains complex business and finance topics with wry humor. I often laugh out loud when I read his emails. I have been reading The Crypto Story and it's wonderful. He covers crypto in four parts: 1) Ledgers, Bitcoin, Blockchains; 2) What Does It Mean?; 3) The Crypto Financial System; and 4) Trust, Money, Community. Here is one excerpt that I highlighted: "I don’t have strong feelings either way about the value of crypto. I like finance. I think it’s interesting. And if you like finance—if you like understanding the structures that people build to organize economic reality—crypto is amazing. It’s a laboratory for financial intuitions. In the past 14 years, crypto has built a whole financial system from scratch." As real estate brokerage takes a breather from the past two years and if one of your goals has been to learn about crypto, start reading The Crypto Story. If you do, shoot me an email and let me what you think of it. I love to talk about crypto. All past issues of Crypto News for Realtors can be viewed on my website. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ How Was Venture Firm Andreessen Horwitz's Timing When It Invested Heavily in Crypto In 2021? Andreessen's 2021 $4.5B crypto fund lost about 40% of its value the first half of 2022. This was a much larger loss than other crypto funds. The Wall Street Journal reported that Chris Dixon, Andreessen's lead partner on crypto, states that crypto is still in its early stages of finding its users and he is unsure when there will be mass adoption. Dixon said, crypto “is about the political and governing structure of the internet. We have a very long-term horizon.” The firm also purchased tokens of many of the firms they funded. This paid handsomely during the crypto bull market and the firm made over 10 times its initial investment after fees. ▸ UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak Appears Focused on Crypto Before becoming Prime Minister, Sunak was the finance minister and argued for UK to become a crypto hub. UK law makers are now focused on how to regulate stablecoins, crypto currencies whose value is tied to a stable currency or commodity, like the US dollar or the British pound. Economic Secretary to the Treasury Andrew Griffith said, "Certain crypto assets and distributed ledger technology could drive transformational changes in financial markets. The government's position is to start with those most stable, least volatile coins likely to be used by intermediaries as a settlement currency and then we will go forward and consult from there." The Labour party is bit more cautious, but acknowledged that delaying crypto laws is also problematic. Tulip Siddiq, spokesperson for Labour party's Treasury matters, said, "A delay to crypto laws risks leaving our country behind in the fintech and blockchain race. In the absence of a comprehensive regulatory regime, the U.K. risks becoming a center for illicit finance and crypto activity.” ▸ Digital Artist Beeple Builds a Digital Art Museum In Charleston, SC In March 2021, NFTs captured headlines around the world when digital artist Mike Winkelmann, known as Beeple, sold a digital collage at Christie's for $69M. The attention garnered by the sale was the catalyst for the NFT craze. At a recent Wall Street Journal tech conference, Winkelmann announced that he is building a museum in Charleston that will profile the work of digital artists. His goal is to showcase "the actual experience of digital art, rather than the speculation surrounding it." Winkelmann wants to help emerging artists during the downturn. As reported in the WSJ, Winkelmann said, “We are definitely in a crypto winter. People are hyper focused on prices and things like that, and I think the correct focus would be who is building things that will have long term value in the space…The fundamental technology has not changed in the last six months. If you’re focused on delivering products that people find enjoyable or useful, you’ll be fine.” CRYPTO CLASS – Blockchain Trilemma Blockchains have three goals: scalability, decentralization, and security. However, only two of these goals are attainable. Scalability allows the blockchain to process a lot of transactions. Decentralization means that the blockchain does not rely on a small number of computers. A secure blockchain means that a minority of computers on the network cannot successfully attack it. The two largest blockchains, Bitcoin and Ethereum, account for almost 60% of the crypto industry market cap. They focused on decentralization and security. Their challenge has been speed because their network of computers are vast. If instead, those blockchains were on a handful of computers, they would operate faster. But, they would lack security. A solution to scalability is to build another layer on top of the blockchains. The Lightning Network is a "Layer 2" payment system on the Bitcoin blockchain that facilitates payments without running them through the blockchain. INFLUENCERS - People to follow Tim Draper – @TimDraper A third generation investor whose investment track record includes, Skype, Baidu, and Tesla. In 2014, Draper purchased 30,000 bitcoin for $19M ($633 per BTC) in a US government auction of bitcoin seized from Silk Road. Draper funded Twitch, a live-streaming video gaming platform, which was sold to Amazon for $1B. A not so successful investment was Draper's early investment in Elizabeth Holmes' Theranos. Draper also invested in Robinhood, Coinbase, and eShares. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos Bloomberg Magazine's special issue on crypto. Written by Bloomberg Opinion columnist Matt Levine. CRYPTO WORD – REKT In the crypto community, rekt often refers to someone who has experienced a heavy financial loss due to a wrong trade or investment. For instance, let’s say Bob invests more than half his savings on XRP just after its price soared. And a week later, the price of XRP nosedived to less than 20% of the previous week’s value due to problems with regulation. In this case, Bob has gotten REKT. (From CoinMarketCap) OH, ONE MORE THING – Thanks for reading! See you next week.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 38

    October 23, 2022 | Issue 38 A WORKABLE APPROACH TO CRYPTO Former SEC Chair Arthur Levitt and CEO of Lumida, a digital-asset advisory firm, Ram Ahluwalia, wrote an opinion piece in the Wall Street Journal advocating that the SEC, Congress, and crypto industry work through the thorny regulatory issues. The authors caution that "[t]his regulatory standoff poses a risk to the growth of blockchain and cryptocurrency technology." "No matter what regulators do, they shouldn’t stifle the innovation that is at the heart of this market. Blockchain is the first technology that enables two parties to transact without a centralized intermediary such as an exchange, broker or bank. The implications are profound." They state the crypto industry needs to accept oversight and the regulators need to go beyond enforcement. Currently, there is not a clear path to compliance. The SEC should provide constructive guidance to the crypto market and congress should develop stablecoin audit standards. They conclude that if agreement is reached among the parties, "The US can strengthen its standing as the world's leading capital market and global reserve currency." I will be pleasantly surprised if any clear guidance from regulatory agencies or bills from Congressional committees emerge before the Congressional session begins in January. In the meantime, let's keep learning more about crypto. If you have any questions about crypto, reach out to me and I'll find the answers. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Listen in and, hit SUBSCRIBE. All past issues of Crypto News for Realtors can be viewed on my website. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ Bitcoin Mining Operators Flock to Texas in Search of Stranded Energy "Stranded energy" in west Texas typically looks like natural gas that is burned off and wasted. Bitcoin miners search for stranded energy and use the gas to power their computers which can operate 24 hours a day. The large petroleum reserve in the area, known as the Permian Basin, contains an abundance of natural gas that isn't captured by a pipeline. Instead, it is released into the atmosphere. Texas welcomes bitcoin miners, these miners can impact the grid. Miners claim they stabilize the electric grid because during peak electricity demand they can power off their computers. This past summer, on July 11th during a record heat wave, every bitcoin miner shut down their operation and it prevented the need to have blackout. Miners, however, would like to run their operations continuously. One interesting venture run by former Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey is a $12M bitcoin mining pilot project in West Texas powered by solar panels. The project stores electricity in Tesla batteries so the computers can run during the night. The pilot project is currently unprofitable, but the founders expect to find a path to profitability. ▸ Mastercard Offers Crypto Service to Banks Mastercard partnered with Paxos Trust Company and launched a crypto trading and custody program for banks. Paxos will provide the crypto services and Mastercard will integrate the services into the banks' user interfaces. Recently, Visa launched a partnership with crypto exchange FTX to offer debit cards in more than 40 countries. ▸ Galaxy Reports $1.8B In NFT Royalties Galaxy, a crypto analytics firm, reported that over $1.8B in royalties were paid to creators of Ethereum-based NFT collections. The average royalty paid on OpenSea doubled to 6% from 3% last year. The major NFT brands earned "hundred of millions of dollars in income from royalties generated on secondary sales." The report found that 10 entities brought in 27% of all royalties and 482 NFT collections accounted for 80% of all royalties. Here are the top 10 entities and their earned royalties 1) Yuga Labs (BAYC) – $147M 2) Art Blocks – $82M 3) OpenSea Storefront Creator – $77M 4) Chiru Labs – $52M 5) PROOF Collective (Moonbirds) – $31M 6) The Sandbox – $26M 7) Doodles – $24M 8) VeeFriends (Gary Vaynerchuk's NFTS) – $21M 9) NFT Worlds – $15M 10) World of Women – $13M CRYPTO CLASS – Will Blockchain Upend Banking? The existing payments system used to send money inside the US and internationally is cumbersome, slow, and costly to the sender and receiver. It's also highly profitable to banks. Over 11,000 entities currently use the SWIFT messaging system. It allows member banks to communicate with one another. SWIFT is currently overseen by central banks in the US, UK, Canada, France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. SWIFT sends 42 million messages per day. SWIFT does not, however, send the funds. It sends the payment orders and the money is processed through intermediaries. Each intermediary charges a fee. International payments take longer and have higher fees. For example, if someone in the US wanted to send part of their paycheck to someone in London, they might need to pay a $25 flat fee for a wire transfer and additional fees up to 7%. Blockchain technology with its decentralized ledger could facilitate faster payments at lower fees than banks. Bitcoin transactions take an average of 25 minutes to settle and sometimes longer. This is significantly quicker than the average 3-day processing time for domestic bank transfers and international payments. INFLUENCERS - People to follow Hal Finney Finney graduated from California Institute of Technology and worked as a software engineer in California. He was a cryptographic activist and wrote, "The computer can be used as a tool to liberate and protect people, rather than control them." In 2004, Finney created the first reusable proof of work system before bitcoin was launched. He embraced bitcoin when it launched and on January 12, 2009. He received the first bitcoin transaction from bitcoin's creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. Finney died in 2014 from complications related to ALS. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos Thanks to Emma Taub who sent me a link to a terrific primer on NFTs. CRYPTO WORD – Satoshi (SATS) The smallest unit of bitcoin with a value of 0.00000001 BTC. Like any other fiat currency, cryptocurrencies can also be divided into smaller units. Just as the U.S. dollar can be divided into cents and the pound into pence, the smallest available unit of Bitcoin is a satoshi. (From CoinMarketCap) OH, ONE MORE THING – Bitcoin is defiance... Thanks for reading! See you next week. Go to Crypto News for Realtors to read previous issues.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 37

    October 16, 2022 | Issue 37 CRYPTO BEING EMBRACED BY INSTITUTIONS While many crypto influencers debate BTC and ETH pricing trends, large mainstream financial institutions are embracing crypto. As reported below, BNY Mellow announced a new digital custody platform for clients’ bitcoin and ETH holdings. Also, Visa and JPMorgan announced a partnership to use a private blockchain to speed up cross-border payments. What about real estate institutions adopting crypto? I haven't seen any of them give a full-throated endorsement of crypto. Perhaps because the current real estate market is in a frozen state of fear as it watches macro economic conditions unfold. In the meantime, if you have ANY crypto topic that you would like me to cover, let me know. I'll dive in and share what I've learned with everyone else. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Listen in and, hit SUBSCRIBE. All past issues of Crypto News for Realtors can be view on my website. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ BNY Mellon Announces It Will Hold Crypto BNY Mellon began accepting cryptocurrencies. It is the first major US bank to be a crypto custodian. The bank will hold the crypto holder's "private keys," which is essentially the password. This gives the bank control over the assets. BNY Mellon's bookkeeping services that it provides for stocks, bonds, and commodities will now be offered to customers with crypto assets. BNY Mellon is the oldest bank in the US. It leaned into crypto in 2021 when it created an enterprise Digital Assets Unit. "Touching more than 20% of the world's investable assets, BNY Mellon has the scale to reimagine financial markets through blockchain technology and digital assets," said Robin Vince, Chief Executive Officer and President at BNY Mellon. "We are excited to help drive the financial industry forward as we begin the next chapter in our innovation journey." Spurring the bank forward was a 2022 survey it conducted of its institutional clients. The survey showed: 70% of respondents would increase their digital asset activity if services like custody and execution are available from recognized, trusted institutions. 88% are moving forward with their plans. 91% are interested in investing in tokenized products. There was other news this week about companies embracing crypto. The online advisor Betterment launched a crypto investment portfolio for their retail and advisor customers. And Google's parent company Alphabet signed a deal with Coinbase allowing Google's cloud service's clients to pay in crypto. ▸ SEC Chair Gary Gensler on Regulating Crypto, Exchanges, and Greater Authority to the CFTC Gensler announced this week, "I think the CFTC could well have greater authorities. They currently do not have direct regulatory authorities over the underlying non-security tokens.” He quickly added there are likely less than 10 tokens that fall into this category. In an interview with CoinDesk's Nikhilesh De, Gensler stated his position on regulating crypto. Q. When will the SEC provide regulatory clarity? A. "Most of the tokens meet the traditional standards that our Supreme Court has laid out, and that we, the SEC, have a role to help protect investors and instill and enhance trust in these markets." Q. How should crypto exchanges, like Coinbase, be regulated? A. "Right now, if you're investing on any one of these service providers [or] platforms, you're not getting those basic protections insuring against fraud, manipulation, what's called front-running. The platforms are an amalgam of different services. Not only are they doing what you might be familiar with at the New York Stock Exchange, but they are also … acting as a broker against you. They're like an amalgam of dealers trading against their public, they could be trading ahead of you. And our securities laws say no, that's not allowed. So there are a lot of protections that you right now are not getting the benefit from but should be because it's the law." ▸ FTX Superbowl Ad Characterized As Targeting Companies, Not Retail Investors FTX CEO Sam Blankman-Fried said that the well-received (and very funny) Superbowl ad was for branding purposes. He said, “It’s much, much more about our branding as a company, and the institutional relationships we can create, than it is about mass-market activity.” About 208 million people watched the Superbowl ad which featured Larry David as a naysayer throughout history. He questioned the utility of the wheel, a fork, indoor toilets, coffee, dishwashers, the US Declaration of Independence, the moon project, and crypto. CRYPTO CLASS – Bitcoin Spot ETFs & Futures ETF Buying cryptocurrencies involves purchasing through an exchange such as Coinbase or Gemini, and then figuring out how to move control of the bitcoin from the exchange to the buyer's wallet. This process creates a lot friction and many investors interested in diversifying into crypto are reluctant to do so. Exchange-traded funds (ETF) offer a solution to investors with a brokerage account. It allows investors to be exposed to bitcoin without the hassle of buying the actual crypto. A bitcoin EFT simply tracks the price of bitcoin instead of a direct investment of the asset. Currently, bitcoin ETFs are limited to futures contracts. Futures contracts allow investors to bet on bitcoin’s future price by agreeing to buy or sell bitcoin at a specific price on a set date. Futures contracts are traded at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (“Chicago Merc” or “CME”). The CME was established in 1898 as the Chicago Butter and Egg Board and was used for trading agricultural products. Over time, the traded commodities expanded beyond butter, eggs, pork bellies, and orange juice. Other asset classes include currencies, energy, interest rates, metals, stock indexes, and since 2021, a bitcoin futures ETF. An alternative to a futures ETF is a spot ETF. A spot ETF would allow an investor to purchase the ETF based on bitcoin’s current price. Grayscale applied to the Security & Exchange Commission for a spot-based ETF in October 2021. Grayscale is the world’s largest digital asset manager, has 850,000 investors in the US, and owns more than 3% of outstanding BTC. The SEC rejected Grayscale's spot bitcoin ETF application and Grayscale filed a lawsuit against the SEC. This week, Grayscale filed its initial brief. Grayscale argued that SEC’s approval of a futures ETF relies upon the same indices as would a spot ETF. An investor’s risks are the same and the SEC’s rationale to reject a spot ETF is flawed because it favors one type of product. Grayscale’s chief legal officer, Craig Salm, said, “[T]he test the SEC has applied to Bitcoin-related ETFs, and only Bitcoin-related ETFs, is flawed and has been inconsistently applied with a ‘special harshness’ to spot Bitcoin ETFs.” Over the next few weeks, legal briefs will be filed with the court by other companies and industry groups in support of Grayscale. The SEC will then file its response. INFLUENCERS - People to follow Rostin Benham - @CFTCbenham Benham is the Chair of the Commodities Futures Trading Commission. As Chair, Benham, has advocated for the CFTC to use its authority to bring greater transparency to the complex markets, e.g. options, futures, and swaps. He also helped create a committee focused on how weather and climate changes will impact low-to-moderate income communities. Before serving on the CFTC, Benham was Senior Counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos If you want an overview of the most important aspects of Bitcoin and crypto, this is a terrific primer. CRYPTO WORD – Rehypothecation. Rehypothecation is the practice where banks, and even the brokers themselves, use assets that have been posted as collateral by their clients for their own purposes. Clients that permit rehypothecation of their collateral can be compensated through a lower cost of borrowing or a rebate on fees. (From CoinMarketCap) OH, ONE MORE THING – WHAT IS BITCOIN? This testimony by Coin Center's head of research, Peter Van Valkenburgh, gives one of the most clearly articulated explanations of crypto that I've seen. If you can find 5 minutes, you'll learn a lot. Thanks for reading! See you next week.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 36

    October 9, 2022 | Issue 36 EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED Last week's special issue of Crypto News for Realtors focused on macro economic issues that impact crypto. I wrote about inflation, CPI, the Fed, treasurys, consumer sentiment index, the prime rate, mortgage rates, and more. This week, while many of these topics were fresh in my mind, I saw how reported data in one area impacted another. For example, on Friday, the unemployment numbers were released. I knew from my research last week that if unemployment had not increased, the Fed would continue their tough stance on rates, and that is what happened. Over 263,000 jobs were added and the unemployment rate fell. The markets expect that the Fed will not ease up on their rate hikes. The stock market dropped and, as I wrote two weeks ago, crypto correlates with stocks and crypto also dropped. What about mortgage rates, which is a major driver in buyer demand? The 30-year fixed mortgage rate follows the 10-year bond. Since the 10-year bond will move up, it is very likely that mortgage rates will do the same. I have discovered that paying close attention to crypto has spillover benefits in my real estate world. I now have a deeper understanding of what drives the real estate market. If you missed last week's issue on the economy, I highly recommend reading it. Enough of the economy, this week's news is 100% crypto. If there is ANY crypto topic that you would like me to cover, let me know. I'll dive in and share what I've learned with everyone else. Also, check out my YouTube videos and Podcast Crypto News for Realtors wherever you get your podcasts. Listen in and, hit SUBSCRIBE. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ Federal Risk Panel Warns About Crypto Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen chairs the Financial Stability Oversight Council and this week the council issued their Report on Digital Asset Financial Stability Risks and Regulation. Yellen said, "the current regulatory framework has helped largely insulate traditional financial institutions from crypto-asset-related financial stability risks." However, she warned that as crypto grows, if new regulations are not in place, crypto's interconnectedness with traditional finance could pose risks to the U.S. financial system. The Council asked Congress to consider legislation to ensure crypto regulations are enacted. Another federal entity, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, reported an increase in consumer complaints against crypto exchanges. ▸ Celsius Founder & CEO Alex Mashinsky Steps Down Celsius was a large crypto lender that built its customer base by paying high interest rates (up to 18%) and claiming that Celsius was safer than a traditional bank. When crypto prices fell in June, Celsius froze customer accounts and then filed for bankruptcy in July. Celsius owed its customers $4.7B. Bankruptcy filings released this week showed that Mashinsky withdrew $10M in tokens between May and the bankruptcy filing. Mashinsky stepped down as CEO in September. ▸ Kim Kardashian Pays $1.26M to Settle With SEC In June 2021, Kardashian promoted the crypto token EthereumMax as a good investment. She posted on her Instagram page, "This is not financial advice but sharing what my friends have just told me about the EthereumMax token!" Kardashian was paid $250,000 by the crypto company for the post. SEC's Chair Gary Gensler said, "“Ms. Kardashian’s case also serves as a reminder to celebrities and others that the law requires them to disclose to the public when and how much they are paid to promote investing in securities.” CRYPTO CLASS – MakerDAO MakerDAO is a decentralized credit system that is fully collateralized and sits on the Ethereum blockchain. It is the longest running project on Ethereum. The MakerDAO token is a stable coin called DAI. It maintains a one-to-one ratio with the US dollar. Each DAI is backed by Ether. DAI's collateral ratio is currently 134% and can be confirmed by going to www.daistats.com. On September 6, the community that governs MakerDAO invested $500M in US Treasurys and corporate bonds. The funds are from the over-collateralized stablecoin. INFLUENCERS - People to follow Braeden Anderson -@braedenandy Andersen is an attorney at Kirkland & Ellis who defends companies and individuals being investigated by the Dept. of Justice, SEC, and other federal and state agencies. He was recently interviewed about crypto regulation by Pomp. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos Fascinating interview of Vitalik Buterin (Ethereum Co-Founder) by Ezra Klein. Buterin gives brilliantly articulated answers to questions about the crypto industry's maturation, the underlying value of a trustless protocol, governance, aggressive crypto marketing campaigns, and more. CRYPTO WORD – Hash Rate. The hash rate of a mining rig is the number of hashes that it can calculate per second. The combined hash power of a cryptocurrency network is the sum of the hash rates of all mining rigs that are in operation at any given moment. (From CoinMarketCap) OH, ONE MORE THING – This dog who solicits onlookers for a pat on the head or a treat, reminds me of the SEC asking crypto companies to meet and discuss potential regulatory issues. Thanks for reading! See you next week.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 35

    October 2, 2022 | Issue 35 ** SPECIAL ISSUE ** THE ECONOMY Three months ago, I devoted an entire issue of this newsletter to the economy and it was well received. Apparently, I wasn't the only real estate agent confused about how the Federal Reserve's actions could alter the housing market. Today, the economy is dominating the news and the housing sector has turned on a dime. The supercharged sellers market is gone and we are trying to figure out what's ahead for home buyers and sellers. It's a perfect time to focus on the economy. Let's start with what I wrote in June – "We are at a point where we are saying good bye to rising asset prices, stable pricing of consumer goods, a red hot housing market, a rising stock market, record low unemployment, and a crypto market that has outperformed all investments." Pretty much all of those things came true – asset prices dropped, the housing market has turned, and the stock market and crypto have plunged. The only piece that hasn't responded to the Federal Reserves' increase in rates has been unemployment. As I'll discuss below, that is problematic for the Fed. It is unlikely that you spend a lot of time reading business publications or watching CNBC. I am assuming you aren't fluent in "Fed speak" or know a lot of economic terms. In this issue, I will explain the fundamentals. I suggest you take your time reading it and not just skimming through it. After you digest it, you'll feel comfortable discussing real estate issues in the context of economic news. These economic issues touch everyone, but they are especially relevant to prospective home sellers and buyers. Let me know if you find this issue helpful. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. You can find all CNR newsletters here and my new YouTube Channel. PPS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. It's not a good sign when a highly-regarded economist that I follow, Nik Bhatia, entitles his weekly newsletter, "Financial Instability, Liquidity Drying Up, Alarm Bells Ringing." And Bhatia is not an outlier. All week, the financial, business, and economic news has been disheartening. Instead of disputing the news, searching for a ray of sunshine, or ignoring it, I wanted to go beyond the headlines and understand what is going on. Below, I discuss Inflation, CPI, The Federal Reserve, Fed's Fund Rate, Terminal Rate, Prime Rate, US Treasurys, Inverted Yield Curve, Consumer Sentiment Index, Mortgage Rates, New Construction, Unemployment, Commodities, and the impact of the strong dollar on the Global Economy. INFLATION is a measure of the decline of purchasing power and is tracked by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. They calculate the Consumer Price Index (CPI) by measuring the average change in price, over time, of a "basket" of selected goods and services. The CPI is based on 94,000 price quotes from 23,000 retail and service establishments, and 43,000 rental housing units. Inflation dropped from July to August, but not by enough. The August rate was 8.26%, but not as low as the Fed expected. It is also quite a distance from the 2% target inflation rate – last experienced in February 2021. Inflation is at a 40-year high. Until consumers believe that inflation has peaked and change their buying behavior, inflation won't come down. Conversely, if consumers feel that inflation is not over, they will continue spending because they don't want to pay more for goods and services over the next few months. A surge in shopping could create shortages which will then trigger higher prices. This is a cycle that won't end well. The job of taming inflation falls on the Federal Reserve (The Fed). The Fed is mandated to use monetary policy to achieve stable pricing and maximum employment. The Fed can slow down inflation by making it more painful for people to spend money. They do this by raising the "Fed funds rate." The federal funds rate is the rate that banks charge each other for lending cash or excess reserves. It is also the rate that commercial banks lend to each other. On September 22, 2022, the Fed set its target range at 3% to 3.25%. This was a 0.75% increase. The Fed's longer term projections were also revealed. Comparing the June projections to the current projections revealed that the Fed underestimated inflation. Inflation has turned out to be more difficult to control than anticipated. Their hawkish language was clear – the Fed will do whatever is necessary to bring down inflation. Fed Vice Chair Lael Brainard said, "Monetary policy will need to be restrictive for some time to have confidence that inflation is moving back to target." The "terminal rate" is a mapping of projected rates over time on a "dot plot." It shows that the Fed will raise rates to 4.375% by the end of 2022 and it will peak at 4.625% in 2023. This implies a pace of rate hikes next year. Inflation is projected to drop from the current 8.26% to 5.4% by the end of the 2022 and 3.1% in 2023. The prime rate is the rate that commercial banks charge their most creditworthy customers. It’s based on the federal funds rate plus 3. The current US prime rate is 6.25%. It has not been this high since January 2008. How is this reflected in consumer spending which accounts for two-thirds of US economic output? The Commerce Department reported that retail sales rose in August, but that is primarily due to a rise in auto sales. Excluding motor vehicles, sales dropped 0.3%. A reliable gauge of future consumer spending is the consumer sentiment index. It measures how consumers feel about their jobs and the economy by asking a handful of questions: ● Compared to a year ago, financially, are you better off, worse off, or the same? ● A year from now, do you think you’ll be financially better, worse, or the same? ● In a year, will US business conditions be good, bad, or other? ● In the next five years, do you think the US will see continuous good times or unemployment/depression? ● When it comes to major household appliances, is buying now a good time or bad time? The most recent index showed that consumers feel a bit better in September than in August, but their attitude about the economy is much lower than last year. They are pessimistic about the economy long term. (This jives with the "inverted yield curve" discussed below.) Households continue to benefit from strong labor market, and gasoline dropped since June. However, expect to see the slowing housing market weigh on purchases of goods such as furniture and appliances. Consumer confidence is key to bringing down inflation. Companies raise money by selling bonds. The US government does the same, except that the US bonds are secured by the government. This makes them safe because payment is guaranteed by the US government. The bond holder, investor, pays a price for the bond and receives a yield as the bond matures. When it matures, the holder receives the face value. The 10-year Treasury bond yield is important because it signals investor confidence. The US Treasury sells bonds through an auction and the yield is set through a bidding process. Bonds are also sold on a secondary market by brokers and third parties. When confidence in the US economy is strong and investors have a higher appetite for risk, they put their money into stocks and the demand for bonds is low. However, when the confidence in the economy is waning, investors want safe investments and they flock to Treasurys. Investors want to minimize their risk and move their money out of riskier investments such as stocks. Economists compare the 2-year and 10-year Treasury bonds. Normally, investors expect to be receive a higher yield when they buy longer term Treasury bonds. Today, however, the 10-year yield (3.76%) is lower than the 2-year (4.22%). This phenomenon is know as an “inverted yield curve” and it signals a recession. Except for one time, an inverted yield curve signaled every recession since 1955. It shows that investors are more confident in the short term health of the economy than the long term. The Fed wanted to see a cooling of the housing market and they certainly got it. After a series of historic increases in the fed funds rate, the housing market did an about face. Here's how that happened. The 10-year Treasury bond closely tracks 30-year fixed mortgages. When the 10-year Treasury yield moves up or down, it’s followed by mortgage rates. Today, a 30-year fixed mortgage is 6.7%. A year ago it was 3.01%. Today’s rates have not been this high since July 2007. Selma Happ at CoreLogic said, "The surge in mortgage rates has brought the housing market to an impasse. Many buyers moved to the sidelines as the cost of homeownership became prohibitively high, while sellers were unwilling to give up locked-in record-low interest rates and expectations of peak sales prices.” High mortgage rates have put the breaks on demand and sellers are reluctant to sell because the days of insanely high priced multiple offers are over. Also, sellers who refinanced are not willing to give up their current low mortgage rates. What about new construction? US homebuilder sentiment has fallen every month in 2022 according to surveys conducted by the National Association of Home Builders. A lead analyst for HousingWire, Logan Hotashami, said, "No new building. This is almost useless; the housing market has already gone into a recession, and the builders are done building anything new until they get rid of the excess supply they already have. We have 10.9 months of housing supply with 9.84 months in construction. The builders will take their time finishing these homes and ensuring they sell them at a price that is useful for their business model." After the last financial crisis, home building dropped below historic norms for more than a decade. This resulted in the housing shortage that we have been experiencing. It appears that this will continue and there will not be sufficient inventory for the tens of millions of millenials looking to buy a house over the next decade. UNEMPLOYMENT – The unemployment rate was 3.7% in August. This remains near a half-century low of 3.5%. There are practically two job openings for every unemployed person seeking work. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell has said the ratio of job openings to unemployed workers must narrow to bring the labor market into better balance. Even though the Fed is mandated to keep unemployment low, the current rate is too low. Many economists predict that the Fed tightening won't stop until unemployment increases. COMMODITIES – Major commodity prices have been falling, including copper. Copper is used in many products and lower prices show a drop in global demand and the end of supply chain problems. This is considered a bellwether and indicates a contraction. GLOBAL ECONOMY – As The Fed raises rates to eliminate inflation, the US dollar's value is increasing around the world. This is wreaking havoc around the globe because the dollar is the world's reserve currency. According to the International Monetary Fund, 40% of the world's transactions occur with the US dollar. In Europe, the dollar's rise in value compared to the British pound and Euro, is increasing inflation which is already at 10%. Europeans are seeing 41% higher energy prices compared to a year ago. It is going to be a challenging winter. New York Times reporter Patricia Cohen wrote in "The Dollar Is Strong. That Is Good for the US but Bad for the World" that a strong dollar is also worsening starvation in Nigeria and Somalia because it is increasing the price of imported food, fuel, and medicine. Foreign investment is also being curtailed in India and South Korea. Thanks for reading! Please send me an email and let me know if you learned anything about the economy. See you next week. Best, Rich Go to Crypto News for Realtors to read previous issues and check out my YouTube Channel and Podcast.

  • Crypto News for Realtors – Issue 34

    September 25, 2022 | Issue 34 THE ECONOMY & BITCOIN It's not possible to develop an understanding of crypto's future in real estate without understanding what drives crypto adoption. I often write about the moves by policymakers in Washington and the industry influencers, but I rarely address macro economic factors. This newsletter's lead story is about the price correlation between bitcoin and the stock market. Anyone that owns bitcoin and checks on its price, notices the when the S&P drops or surges, chances are that crypto, not just bitcoin, does the same. I have also observed that when crypto pricing trended up and to the right (a while ago), more agents reached out to me with an interest in learning about crypto. I h ope that happens again soon. Another issue this week that caught my attention was the Treasury's request for comment on criminal crypto activity. Many of you know that in addition to crypto and my local real estate market, I spend time on wire fraud prevention. I recently learned from my friends at CertifID, a leading wire fraud prevention software provider, that criminals who steal real estate funds will often convert those funds into crypto. I hope that CertifID, NAR, ALTA, and other industry representatives respond to the Treasury's request for comments and share information that may help thwart wire fraud criminals from stealing buyers and sellers money. Also, many of you reached out to me about my YouTube videos. Thanks! Please SUBSCRIBE and LIKE the videos. If there is ANY crypto topic that you would like me to cover, let me know. I'll dive in and share what I've learned with everyone else. Have a productive week and stay crypto curious! Rich Hopen richard.hopen@compass.com | 908.917.7926 PS. You can find all CNR newsletters here and my new YouTube Channel. PPS. This newsletter is supported by home buyers and sellers in NJ who retain me as their real estate agent. If you know of anyone looking to buy or sell a home, please reach out to me. CRYPTO NEWS ▸ Bitcoin and S&P As the Federal Reserve tightens monetary policy in its battle against multi-decade high inflation, real estate agents have been focused on the impact for home buyers and sellers. In the crypto world, the focus is the price of bitcoin. Nik Bhatia, a USC business professor and author of a highly-regarded book Layered Money, explains that over the past five years, the price correlation between stocks (S&P 500) and bitcoin has been the second highest correction among all asset classes. Price correlation measures how different asset classes behave in relationship to one another. Asset correlation is crucial in investment portfolios because investors need balance. They don't want their investments to move in the same direction at the same time. Bhatia notes that there have been periods when bitcoin uncouples from stocks and experienced major price increases. Bitcoin market watchers are looking for those signals. ▸ Nasdaq Jumping Into Crypto Custody Service According an article in The Block, Nasdaq will provide a broader service in crypto beyond facilitating trades. Nasdaq will offer crypto custodial services – holding onto investors' crypto assets. Nasdaq is responding to growing demand among institutional investors. In a CoinDesk article about Nasdaq by journalist Margaux Nijkerk, she asks if traditional finance will take over crypto or will crypto reshape traditional finance? The large crypto exchange FTX introduced stock trading this year. ▸ US Treasury Seeking Public Comments to Fight Crypto Crime The Treasury published a notice asking the public to submit comments on the Treasury's efforts to assess and mitigate finance risks tied to crypto. Here are some of the questions: ▸ What regulatory changes would help to mitigate illicit financing risks associated with digital assets? ▸ What additional steps should the U.S. government consider to address the illicit finance risks related to mixers and other anonymity-enhancing technologies? ▸ Are there specific countries or jurisdictions where the U.S. government should focus its efforts, through bilateral outreach and technical assistance, to strengthen foreign AML/CFT regimes related to virtual asset service providers? ▸ How can law enforcement and supervisory efforts related to countering illicit finance in digital assets better integrate private sector resources? CRYPTO CLASS – Utility Tokens NFTs (non-fungible tokens) are crypto assets that prove ownership of real or digital items. They are typically associated with graphic images purchased by speculators and celebrities. However, there is a subset of NFTs, known as utility tokens, that have value beyond being a unique digital asset. In March 2021, musical group King of Leon released three types of NFTs. Holders of the "Limited Deluxe" version received a digital album, vinyl album, and an animated album cover. "Golden Ticket" holders received tickets to a concert and VIP perks like front row seats for life and a personal concierge for shows. And there was a "Limited Open Edition" which allowed fans to create, or mint, their own "When You See Yourself" NFTs before a deadline. Another popular utility token was "The Muhammad Ali Experience Mystery Box Collection." This NFT had six levels with different perks that included access to the Muhammad Ali Experience Museum, digital Muhammad Ali artwork, a print and canvas signed by Ali, and one signed by artists Mike Bundlie and Lonnie Ali, Ali's wife, which featured $500 of gold flakes. Gary Vaynerchuk launched VeeFriends NFTs which offered access to VeeCon, a conference on marketing and entrepreneurship. INFLUENCERS - People to follow Layah Heilpern -@LayaHeilpern Heilpern wrote Undressing Bitcoin, hosts a YouTube show, and appears on a lot of business shows. RESOURCES – Books, websites, podcasts, interviews, articles, videos CoinMarketCap is not only a great resource for looking at market data on crypto coins, it also has terrific page on latest crypto news. CRYPTO WORD – Dead Cat Bounce. A temporary recovery in prices after a prolonged decrease. OH, ONE MORE THING – Hmmm... Thanks for reading! See you next week.

  • The Crypto Ecosystem

    I lived three blocks from the ocean in the Pacific Beach section of San Diego. Most days, I would take a long bike ride and finish at the beach to watch the sun disappear over the horizon. At night time, I'd sleep with my window open and listen to the waves crashing against the shoreline. I marveled at the power and beauty of the ocean, but I didn't appreciate it as an interdependent ecosystem until I had a summer job at Sea World as a tour guide. During my training (in the 80s the word "onboarding" hadn't been invented yet), I was handed a three-inch binder filled with photos and facts of all the animals and plants at Sea World. I was instructed to prepare ten talks about the park's attractions. I learned about whales, dolphins, penguins, sea lions, walruses, sharks, fish, and the tide pools. I also discovered that the oceans function as an interconnected system. They are fragile and resilient. Ten years after living in San Diego, I moved to South Florida. As an environmental lawyer, I had an opportunity to learn about another ecosystem – wetlands. In the mid-1990s, Broward County developers were building new homes on massive tracts of farmlands that were once thriving wetlands. As a condition to obtaining a building permit, many developers had to agree to restore a portion of the property back to its original wetland condition. Not surprisingly, many of the wetland projects languished and failed after the developers finished their work and homeowners associations had to maintain the wetland mitigation projects. A small patch of wetlands surrounded by roads and homes didn't have much a chance to survive. One solution to the failing mitigation restoration projects was to aggregate tiny wetland projects into larger projects. I partnered with another law firm, an environmental engineering firm, and a world-renowned wetland biologist to create the first federally-permitted entrepreneurial wetlands mitigation bank in the US. We borrowed the concept of carbon credits and created Florida Wetlandsbank. We sold wetland credits to developers and used the money to build a 345-acre thriving wetland. The project was successful and we replicated it elsewhere. Fast forward to today and I'm living next to another wondrous ecosystem – the protected forest of the Watchung Preserve in New Jersey. Walking the trails daily (without my iPhone) is calming and inspiring. Watching how the forest and animals adapt to the seasons is fascinating. However, I didn't understand the forest in my backyard until I started reading about trees. Trees in a forest are part of a community that work together. Look up at the canopy and you'll see that most trees stop growing its branches when it touches another tree's branches at the same height. This ensures better air flow and light for all the trees. Nature teaches us that healthy ecosystems evolve by developing a system of inter connectedness. Weak connections fail and strong ones take their place. The healthy trees, plants, and animals survive and thrive. I see this happening in the crypto ecosystem. In May 2022, stablecoin USD Terra was not able to maintain its correlation to the US dollar because it was built on a faulty foundation. Unlike Tether and USD coin which are backed by assets such as cash and short-term US government securities, Terra was an "algorithmic stablecoin." As withdrawals increased, it sought to prop up its stablecoin by creating new coins, Luna coins. The best lay explanation I read was from CZ, CEO of crypto exchange Binance. He said, "The design flaw: minting coins (printing money) does not create value, it just dilutes the existing coin holders." When the dust settled, $50 billion disappeared. USD Terra wasn't a lone tree in the crypto forest. It had roots connected to other crypto trees. Celsius, a crypto lending platform, was having problems recovering money from its customers and froze customer withdrawals in June. Celsius had managed $11.4 billion in assets and had 1.7 million customers. As Celsius was collapsing, it lost billions of assets from hedge fund Three Arrows Capital. And as reported below, Three Arrows filed for bankruptcy protection last week. Other impacted crypto players include BlockFi and Voyager. As Nik Bhatia and Joe Corsorti published in their newsletter, "This all made for a spectacular ‘Lehman moment’ for crypto — only in this instance, there are no bailouts. The free market immune system did its work by eliminating the fragile market participants. Only strong, healthy balance sheets will survive." Bitcoin is fundamentally different than the crypto companies who have died or are on life support. Those who hold bitcoin are not holding someone else's liability. I believe the crypto ecosystem is being challenged and that it will survive.

  • Bitcoin's Impact On The Environment

    Ethereum's successful switch from the the energy-intensive Proof-of-Work to Proof-of-Stake mechanism to ensure blockchain integrity will reduce Ethereum's energy consumption by 99.95%. This is great news for carbon reduction and addresses the common criticism that crypto is hurting the planet by contributing to global warming. Ethereum changed platforms, will bitcoin do the same? No, it's not feasible, according to many bitcoin maximalists. Also, in responding to accusations that bitcoin is bad for the environment, it's important to understand the type of electricity that's being harnessed and how bitcoin compares to other industries. Michael Saylor, Executive Chairman of MicroStrategy, a publicly-traded business intelligence firm, recently wrote an article explaining bitcoin's energy consumption – Bitcoin Mining and the Environment. Here is a summary of his main points along with some of my thoughts. 1. Bitcoin's Energy Use If a company's manufacturing process requires using a large amount of electricity, the cost of electricity will be a major factor in determining site location. However, it's only one of many factors. The executives will look at labor costs, workforce availability, real estate costs, tax laws, tax incentives, utility costs, and other factors. Electricity is the major operating expense for bitcoin miners and the lower the cost of electricity, the more attractive it is to bitcoin miners. Saylor said that miners tend to locate "at the edge of the grid, in places where there is no other demand, at times when no one else needs the electricity." Bitcoin miners usually pay 2 to 3 cents per kWH compared to retail and commercial consumers in major metropolitan areas who pay 10 to 20 cents per kWH. 2. Bitcoin Mining Can Benefit The Environment One-third of the world's energy power is wasted. Bitcoin mining can use "stranded natural gas" or methane gas to power its computers. For example, bitcoin miners in Texas set up operations on oil fields where excess natural gas is released into the environment. With bitcoin mining, instead of the methane being released into the atmosphere, it is captured and used. Miners can also set up operations at landfills and capture that methane. Saylor pointed out that "No other industrial energy consumer is so well suited to monetize excess power as well as curtail flexibly during periods of energy shortfall and production volatility." Bitcoin miners can also locate where there is excess power due to low demand of near clean energy sources such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal. 3. Bitcoin Compared to Other Industries Almost sixty percent of bitcoin mining uses sustainable sources. Also, computers that power bitcoin miners became 46% more energy efficient over the past year. Saylor states that bitcoin is far less energy intensive than tech firms Google, Netflix, or Meta and one to two times less energy intensive than airlines, logistics, retail, hospitality, and agriculture. 4. Bitcoin Cannot Use Proof-of-Stake Saylor argues that if bitcoin mining moved to proof-of-stake, the security and control of the network would would be concentrated in a small group of software developers. This would be not be suited to an open, fair money or global settlement network. Supporting his argument, consider that since Ethereum has migrated to Proof-of-Stake, 52% of ETH is staked by only three entities, Lido, Coinbase, and Kraken.